What is a wind turbine?
A wind turbine is simply the opposite of a fan. Instead of using electricity to create wind, they use wind to create electricity. When hit by the wind (this doesn't have to be strong winds either) the blades rotate. This motion turns a rotor, which spins a generator, this motion creates kinetic energy, which is then used to create electricity.
How does a wind turbine work?
Simply put wind turbines work by being hit by the wind (which can be as little as 3-5 metres per second). The wind then turns the blades of a turbine around a rotor, which turns a generator and that creates electricity.
If you’ve ever flown a kite or sailed a boat, you’ll know that there’s plenty of power in the wind. Of course, making use of the wind's power is nothing new – windmills have been used around the world to grind flour or power machinery for hundreds of years. And wind-powered boats have been around for millennia.
So there’s plenty of wind power, but how are there other factors involved in generating electricity from wind turbines?
Choosing the best spot
As with many natural energy sources they’re rarely 100% consistent. Winds can drop, blow too strongly or become gusty – none of these is very good for wind turbines. So finding the right spot where the wind strength is as predictable as possible is crucial.
Wind is influenced by the landscape: hills, valleys, forests and buildings. These all deflect and change the power available so flat, high and uninterrupted locations are best for wind turbines. That’s why there are plenty of off-shore wind farms and why you'll see turbines located at the top of hills.
Countries that have flat landscapes such as Belgium and the Netherlands are good locations for wind farms as there’s very little to interrupt the wind flow.
Facing the wind
Every wind turbine has a sensor that detects the direction of the strongest wind. The streamlined structure behind the blade (called the nacelle) houses the mechanics to turn the top of the structure, putting the blades in the perfect position for the strongest wind. When the wind is too strong, turbines have a brake to slow the rotors down, avoiding any damage.